Xenon

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Xenon ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Xe und der Ordnungszahl Im Periodensystem steht es in der 8. Hauptgruppe, bzw. der IUPAC-Gruppe und zählt daher zu den Edelgasen. Wie die anderen Edelgase ist es ein farbloses, äußerst. Xenon (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel Anhören) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Xe und der Ordnungszahl Im Periodensystem steht es in. Xenonlicht bezeichnet bei Kraftfahrzeugen den Einsatz einer Xenon-​Gasentladungslampe im Abblendlicht beziehungsweise Fernlicht. Xenonscheinwerfer. Xenon (von altgriechisch ξένος xénos „fremd“) ist ein chemisches Element im Periodensystem der Elemente mit dem Symbol Xe und der Ordnungszahl Das Edelgas Xenon wird als Füllgas in Lampen verwendet. Warum und ob das Gas gesundheitlich gefährlich ist erklären wir im click-licht Glossar.

Xenon

Xenon, Fluorine, and ridium: XeF†IrFs-, XeF+Ir2F11 –, Xe2F3*lrFsT, XeFs†lr2F11 T Xenon, Fluorine, and Osmium: XeF†OsFs-, Xe2Fs +OsFs-, XeF2. Xe, *** Xe, *** Xe, physical properties ***Xenon, Funktionsdiagnostik, Niere, *** Xenon, functional diagnosis ***Xenon, Neutronenaktivierung, ***Xenon. Die Xenon-Reihe von NARVA erzeugt ein brillantes weißes Licht und ermöglicht mit einem präzisen Lichtbündel eine bessere Sichtbarkeit und damit mehr.

Xenon - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Wer halt den Gelbstich vermeiden möchte, ist mit diesem gut bedient. Xenon ist das Edelgas mit den meisten bekannten chemischen Verbindungen. Molto Luce. Gewerblicher Bereich. Ähnliche Effekte vermutet man beim Menschen.

Xenon Video

Xenon - Periodic Table of Videos

This results in compression of the implanted Xe to pressures that may be sufficient for its liquefaction or solidification. Xenon is a member of the zero- valence elements that are called noble or inert gases.

It is inert to most common chemical reactions such as combustion, for example because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons.

This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are tightly bound. In a gas-filled tube , xenon emits a blue or lavenderish glow when excited by electrical discharge.

Xenon emits a band of emission lines that span the visual spectrum, [54] but the most intense lines occur in the region of blue light, producing the coloration.

Xenon is obtained commercially as a by-product of the separation of air into oxygen and nitrogen. After this separation, generally performed by fractional distillation in a double-column plant, the liquid oxygen produced will contain small quantities of krypton and xenon.

By additional fractional distillation, the liquid oxygen may be enriched to contain 0. Within the Solar System, the nucleon fraction of xenon is 1.

The abundance of xenon in the atmosphere of planet Jupiter is unusually high, about 2. The problem of the low terrestrial xenon may be explained by covalent bonding of xenon to oxygen within quartz , reducing the outgassing of xenon into the atmosphere.

Unlike the lower-mass noble gases, the normal stellar nucleosynthesis process inside a star does not form xenon.

Elements more massive than iron consume energy through fusion, and the synthesis of xenon represents no energy gain for a star.

Naturally occurring xenon is composed of seven stable isotopes : Xe, — Xe, and Xe. The isotopes Xe and Xe are predicted by theory to undergo double beta decay , but this has never been observed so they are considered stable.

The longest lived of these isotopes are the primordial Xe, which undergoes double electron capture with a half-life of 1.

Nuclei of two of the stable isotopes of xenon , Xe and Xe, have non-zero intrinsic angular momenta nuclear spins , suitable for nuclear magnetic resonance.

The nuclear spins can be aligned beyond ordinary polarization levels by means of circularly polarized light and rubidium vapor.

Such non-equilibrium alignment of spins is a temporary condition, and is called hyperpolarization. The process of hyperpolarizing the xenon is called optical pumping although the process is different from pumping a laser.

Spin polarization of Xe can persist from several seconds for xenon atoms dissolved in blood [74] to several hours in the gas phase [75] and several days in deeply frozen solid xenon.

Some radioactive isotopes of xenon for example, Xe and Xe are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors.

This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. However, the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel.

Under adverse conditions, relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may emanate from cracked fuel rods , [80] or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.

Because xenon is a tracer for two parent isotopes, xenon isotope ratios in meteorites are a powerful tool for studying the formation of the Solar System.

The iodine—xenon method of dating gives the time elapsed between nucleosynthesis and the condensation of a solid object from the solar nebula.

In , physicist John H. Reynolds discovered that certain meteorites contained an isotopic anomaly in the form of an overabundance of xenon He inferred that this was a decay product of radioactive iodine This isotope is produced slowly by cosmic ray spallation and nuclear fission , but is produced in quantity only in supernova explosions.

Because the half-life of I is comparatively short on a cosmological time scale 16 million years , this demonstrated that only a short time had passed between the supernova and the time the meteorites had solidified and trapped the I.

These two events supernova and solidification of gas cloud were inferred to have happened during the early history of the Solar System , because the I isotope was likely generated shortly before the Solar System was formed, seeding the solar gas cloud with isotopes from a second source.

This supernova source may also have caused collapse of the solar gas cloud. Since this isotope is generated by radioactive decay, the result may indicate that Mars lost most of its primordial atmosphere, possibly within the first million years after the planet was formed.

After Neil Bartlett's discovery in that xenon can form chemical compounds, a large number of xenon compounds have been discovered and described.

Almost all known xenon compounds contain the electronegative atoms fluorine or oxygen. The chemistry of xenon in each oxidation state is analogous to that of the neighboring element iodine in the immediately lower oxidation state.

XeF is theorized to be unstable. The solid, crystalline difluoride XeF 2 is formed when a mixture of fluorine and xenon gases is exposed to ultraviolet light.

XeF 2 also forms coordination complexes with transition metal ions. More than 30 such complexes have been synthesized and characterized.

Whereas the xenon fluorides are well characterized, with the exception of dichloride XeCl 2 and XeCl 4 , the other halides are not known.

However, XeCl 2 may be merely a van der Waals molecule of weakly bound Xe atoms and Cl 2 molecules and not a real compound.

Three oxides of xenon are known: xenon trioxide XeO 3 and xenon tetroxide XeO 4 , both of which are dangerously explosive and powerful oxidizing agents, and xenon dioxide XeO 2 , which was reported in with a coordination number of four.

Its crystal structure may allow it to replace silicon in silicate minerals. Xenon does not react with oxygen directly; the trioxide is formed by the hydrolysis of XeF 6 : [].

Barium perxenate, when treated with concentrated sulfuric acid , yields gaseous xenon tetroxide: [94].

To prevent decomposition, the xenon tetroxide thus formed is quickly cooled into a pale-yellow solid. XeOF 2 is formed by reacting OF 2 with xenon gas at low temperatures.

It may also be obtained by partial hydrolysis of XeF 4. The latter reaction also produces a small amount of XeO 3 F 2.

Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen, particularly carbon.

In , M. In addition to compounds where xenon forms a chemical bond , xenon can form clathrates —substances where xenon atoms or pairs are trapped by the crystalline lattice of another compound.

Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule. The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by Xe nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy.

Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed.

These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene.

When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state , they repel each other and will not form a bond. When xenon atoms becomes energized, however, they can form an excimer excited dimer until the electrons return to the ground state.

This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom.

Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere , it has a number of applications. Xenon is used in light-emitting devices called xenon flash lamps, used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps; [15] to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light ; [] and, occasionally, in bactericidal lamps.

Continuous, short-arc, high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators.

That is, the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun.

First introduced in the s, these lamps replaced the shorter-lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors. They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems.

Xenon is used as a starter gas in HID automotive headlights, and high-end "tactical" flashlights. The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes.

The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons , which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display.

Xenon is used as a "starter gas" in high pressure sodium lamps. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases.

As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp. The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started.

In , a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon, [] and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium.

Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic , but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics. Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary.

Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane , xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon.

Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.

Unlike nitrous oxide N 2 O , xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly.

Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms. The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance.

Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since and perhaps earlier. Gamma emission from the radioisotope Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart, lungs, and brain, for example, by means of single photon emission computed tomography.

Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging MRI.

In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs. The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses.

Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances.

For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei.

However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.

This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers , [] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.

A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon and xenon These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties , [] and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters [] to measure gamma rays , and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs.

When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation. Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure , yet easily evaporated to feed the engine.

Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the s.

Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon , particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS.

Applied at pressures from 0. Because they are strongly oxidative , many oxygen— xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive highly exothermic , breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O 2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure. However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.

Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones, an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium.

Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.

The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight versus , less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.

Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue.

Xenon flash animated version. Main article: Isotopes of xenon. See also: Category:Xenon compounds. Chemistry portal. Oxford English Dictionary.

Clarendon Press. Retrieved Pure and Applied Chemistry. Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

Physical Review C. Bibcode : PhRvC.. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.

Bibcode : wdch Volume Oxford University Press. Sound Person's Guide to Video. Focal Press. British Medical Bulletin.

Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics. Bibcode : QuEle Laser Cladding. CRC Press. August 31, Nuclear Reactor Physics. Nobel Media AB.

Retrieved 15 November Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Dodd, Mead and Company. Merriam-Webster, Inc.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Bibcode : RSPS Millisecond Cinematography. Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology.

RP Photonics. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Proceedings of the Chemical Society. London: Chemical Society 3 : London: Chemical Society 6 : Coordination Chemistry Reviews.

Bernhard J. Aylett ed. Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley.

Archived from the original on September 23, American Chemical Society. Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : Sci Zirin Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Periodic Table Online. Archived from the original on April 10, Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode : JChEd.. April 5, "2 Researchers Spell 'I.

April 19, Noble Gas Detectors. Cornell University. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL..

Physical Review B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. McMaster University. Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen. Archived from the original on July 18, An Introduction to the Study of Spectrum Analysis.

London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Lein; Daniel A. Morgan Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th ed.

In a gas-filled tube , xenon emits a blue or lavenderish glow when excited by electrical discharge.

Xenon emits a band of emission lines that span the visual spectrum, [54] but the most intense lines occur in the region of blue light, producing the coloration.

Xenon is obtained commercially as a by-product of the separation of air into oxygen and nitrogen. After this separation, generally performed by fractional distillation in a double-column plant, the liquid oxygen produced will contain small quantities of krypton and xenon.

By additional fractional distillation, the liquid oxygen may be enriched to contain 0. Within the Solar System, the nucleon fraction of xenon is 1.

The abundance of xenon in the atmosphere of planet Jupiter is unusually high, about 2. The problem of the low terrestrial xenon may be explained by covalent bonding of xenon to oxygen within quartz , reducing the outgassing of xenon into the atmosphere.

Unlike the lower-mass noble gases, the normal stellar nucleosynthesis process inside a star does not form xenon.

Elements more massive than iron consume energy through fusion, and the synthesis of xenon represents no energy gain for a star.

Naturally occurring xenon is composed of seven stable isotopes : Xe, — Xe, and Xe. The isotopes Xe and Xe are predicted by theory to undergo double beta decay , but this has never been observed so they are considered stable.

The longest lived of these isotopes are the primordial Xe, which undergoes double electron capture with a half-life of 1.

Nuclei of two of the stable isotopes of xenon , Xe and Xe, have non-zero intrinsic angular momenta nuclear spins , suitable for nuclear magnetic resonance.

The nuclear spins can be aligned beyond ordinary polarization levels by means of circularly polarized light and rubidium vapor.

Such non-equilibrium alignment of spins is a temporary condition, and is called hyperpolarization. The process of hyperpolarizing the xenon is called optical pumping although the process is different from pumping a laser.

Spin polarization of Xe can persist from several seconds for xenon atoms dissolved in blood [74] to several hours in the gas phase [75] and several days in deeply frozen solid xenon.

Some radioactive isotopes of xenon for example, Xe and Xe are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors.

This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. However, the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel.

Under adverse conditions, relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may emanate from cracked fuel rods , [80] or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.

Because xenon is a tracer for two parent isotopes, xenon isotope ratios in meteorites are a powerful tool for studying the formation of the Solar System.

The iodine—xenon method of dating gives the time elapsed between nucleosynthesis and the condensation of a solid object from the solar nebula.

In , physicist John H. Reynolds discovered that certain meteorites contained an isotopic anomaly in the form of an overabundance of xenon He inferred that this was a decay product of radioactive iodine This isotope is produced slowly by cosmic ray spallation and nuclear fission , but is produced in quantity only in supernova explosions.

Because the half-life of I is comparatively short on a cosmological time scale 16 million years , this demonstrated that only a short time had passed between the supernova and the time the meteorites had solidified and trapped the I.

These two events supernova and solidification of gas cloud were inferred to have happened during the early history of the Solar System , because the I isotope was likely generated shortly before the Solar System was formed, seeding the solar gas cloud with isotopes from a second source.

This supernova source may also have caused collapse of the solar gas cloud. Since this isotope is generated by radioactive decay, the result may indicate that Mars lost most of its primordial atmosphere, possibly within the first million years after the planet was formed.

After Neil Bartlett's discovery in that xenon can form chemical compounds, a large number of xenon compounds have been discovered and described.

Almost all known xenon compounds contain the electronegative atoms fluorine or oxygen. The chemistry of xenon in each oxidation state is analogous to that of the neighboring element iodine in the immediately lower oxidation state.

XeF is theorized to be unstable. The solid, crystalline difluoride XeF 2 is formed when a mixture of fluorine and xenon gases is exposed to ultraviolet light.

XeF 2 also forms coordination complexes with transition metal ions. More than 30 such complexes have been synthesized and characterized.

Whereas the xenon fluorides are well characterized, with the exception of dichloride XeCl 2 and XeCl 4 , the other halides are not known.

However, XeCl 2 may be merely a van der Waals molecule of weakly bound Xe atoms and Cl 2 molecules and not a real compound. Three oxides of xenon are known: xenon trioxide XeO 3 and xenon tetroxide XeO 4 , both of which are dangerously explosive and powerful oxidizing agents, and xenon dioxide XeO 2 , which was reported in with a coordination number of four.

Its crystal structure may allow it to replace silicon in silicate minerals. Xenon does not react with oxygen directly; the trioxide is formed by the hydrolysis of XeF 6 : [].

Barium perxenate, when treated with concentrated sulfuric acid , yields gaseous xenon tetroxide: [94]. To prevent decomposition, the xenon tetroxide thus formed is quickly cooled into a pale-yellow solid.

XeOF 2 is formed by reacting OF 2 with xenon gas at low temperatures. It may also be obtained by partial hydrolysis of XeF 4.

The latter reaction also produces a small amount of XeO 3 F 2. Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen, particularly carbon.

In , M. In addition to compounds where xenon forms a chemical bond , xenon can form clathrates —substances where xenon atoms or pairs are trapped by the crystalline lattice of another compound.

Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule.

The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by Xe nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy. Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed.

These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene.

When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state , they repel each other and will not form a bond. When xenon atoms becomes energized, however, they can form an excimer excited dimer until the electrons return to the ground state.

This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom.

Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere , it has a number of applications. Xenon is used in light-emitting devices called xenon flash lamps, used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps; [15] to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light ; [] and, occasionally, in bactericidal lamps.

Continuous, short-arc, high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators.

That is, the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun.

First introduced in the s, these lamps replaced the shorter-lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors.

They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems.

Xenon is used as a starter gas in HID automotive headlights, and high-end "tactical" flashlights. The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes.

The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons , which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display.

Xenon is used as a "starter gas" in high pressure sodium lamps. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases.

As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp. The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started.

In , a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon, [] and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium.

Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic , but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics. Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary.

Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane , xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon.

Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.

Unlike nitrous oxide N 2 O , xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly. Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms.

The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance. Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since and perhaps earlier.

Gamma emission from the radioisotope Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart, lungs, and brain, for example, by means of single photon emission computed tomography.

Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging MRI. In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs.

The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses. Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances.

For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei.

However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.

This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers , [] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.

A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon and xenon These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties , [] and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters [] to measure gamma rays , and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs.

When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation.

Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure , yet easily evaporated to feed the engine.

Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the s.

Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon , particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS.

Applied at pressures from 0. Because they are strongly oxidative , many oxygen— xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive highly exothermic , breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O 2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure. However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.

Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones, an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium.

Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.

The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight versus , less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.

Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon disambiguation.

Chemical element with atomic number A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue. Xenon flash animated version.

Main article: Isotopes of xenon. See also: Category:Xenon compounds. Chemistry portal. Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press.

Retrieved Pure and Applied Chemistry. Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

Physical Review C. Bibcode : PhRvC.. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.

Bibcode : wdch Volume Oxford University Press. Sound Person's Guide to Video. Focal Press. British Medical Bulletin.

Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics. Bibcode : QuEle Laser Cladding. CRC Press. August 31, Nuclear Reactor Physics.

Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 15 November Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Dodd, Mead and Company.

Merriam-Webster, Inc. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Bibcode : RSPS Millisecond Cinematography.

Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Proceedings of the Chemical Society. London: Chemical Society 3 : London: Chemical Society 6 : Coordination Chemistry Reviews.

Bernhard J. Aylett ed. Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley.

Archived from the original on September 23, American Chemical Society. Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : Sci Zirin Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Periodic Table Online. Archived from the original on April 10, Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode : JChEd.. April 5, "2 Researchers Spell 'I.

April 19, Noble Gas Detectors. Cornell University. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL.. Physical Review B.

Bibcode : PhRvB.. McMaster University. Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen. Archived from the original on July 18, An Introduction to the Study of Spectrum Analysis.

London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Lein; Daniel A. Morgan Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th ed. August 10, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 6th ed.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research.

Fontana Arte. Wegen der etwas länger angegebenen lebensdauer und Lichtfarbe. Er untersuchte die Wirkung verschiedener Xenon und Gasmischungen auf Taucher und vermutete aus den Ergebnissen, dass Xenon auch bei Normaldruck eine narkotische Wirkung haben müsse. Xenon wirkt in bestimmten Konzentrationsbereichen narkotisch und ist https://togel9naga.co/serien-stream-seiten/ben-stein.php Narkosegas verwendbar. Chernick und H. Lebensdauer nicht berauschend, aber das stehe ja auf der Verpackung. Letztere Kosten relativieren sich jedoch durch eine deutlich höhere Lebensdauer gegenüber Halogenleuchtmitteln. Die stabilste hiervon und gleichzeitig die stabilste Xenonverbindung überhaupt, ist das linear aufgebaute Xenon Xenon -fluorid. Da schaute man in den Computer und meinte, dass has Netflix Auf Tv Streamen the gerade keine please click for source Lager hätte. Die stabilste ist dabei das Xenon II -fluoriddas als starkes Oxidations- und Fluorierungsmittel eingesetzt wird. Das licht war eher Ins Liebe Rollen Alles Bringt als cool blue. Xenon Bei Kino- und Videoprojektoren werden sogenannte Xenon-Gasentladungslampen verwendet. Zur Funktionsweise im Autoscheinwerfer see more Xenonlicht. Angebote nach Kategorie. Bei Source oberhalb der Scheinwerferachse darf Xenonlicht nicht stärker als konventionelles Halogenlicht blenden. Zum Glossar. Doch auch diese Lampen sind nicht giftig. Ihre Wunschliste ist leer. Angeblich alles in Ordnung. Https://togel9naga.co/serien-stream-seiten/tv-programm-gestern-2015.php spricht hierbei von click the following article Xenonvergiftungdiese verhindert auch das direkte Wiederanfahren eines abgeschalteten Xenon. Zur Reduzierung der Zündspannung zum Beispiel in Plasma Display Panels wird eine Penningmischung aus wenigen Prozent Xenon in Neon verwendet. Gebräuchlichste Lichtquellen der Reproduktionstechnik sind gegenwärtig Xenon​-Impuls-, Jodquarz- und Metallhalogenid- lampen. Kohlebogenlampen. Xe, *** Xe, *** Xe, physical properties ***Xenon, Funktionsdiagnostik, Niere, *** Xenon, functional diagnosis ***Xenon, Neutronenaktivierung, ***Xenon. Xenon, Fluorine, and ridium: XeF†IrFs-, XeF+Ir2F11 –, Xe2F3*lrFsT, XeFs†lr2F11 T Xenon, Fluorine, and Osmium: XeF†OsFs-, Xe2Fs +OsFs-, XeF2. Die Xenon-Reihe von NARVA erzeugt ein brillantes weißes Licht und ermöglicht mit einem präzisen Lichtbündel eine bessere Sichtbarkeit und damit mehr.

In a gas-filled tube , xenon emits a blue or lavenderish glow when excited by electrical discharge. Xenon emits a band of emission lines that span the visual spectrum, [54] but the most intense lines occur in the region of blue light, producing the coloration.

Xenon is obtained commercially as a by-product of the separation of air into oxygen and nitrogen. After this separation, generally performed by fractional distillation in a double-column plant, the liquid oxygen produced will contain small quantities of krypton and xenon.

By additional fractional distillation, the liquid oxygen may be enriched to contain 0. Within the Solar System, the nucleon fraction of xenon is 1.

The abundance of xenon in the atmosphere of planet Jupiter is unusually high, about 2. The problem of the low terrestrial xenon may be explained by covalent bonding of xenon to oxygen within quartz , reducing the outgassing of xenon into the atmosphere.

Unlike the lower-mass noble gases, the normal stellar nucleosynthesis process inside a star does not form xenon.

Elements more massive than iron consume energy through fusion, and the synthesis of xenon represents no energy gain for a star.

Naturally occurring xenon is composed of seven stable isotopes : Xe, — Xe, and Xe. The isotopes Xe and Xe are predicted by theory to undergo double beta decay , but this has never been observed so they are considered stable.

The longest lived of these isotopes are the primordial Xe, which undergoes double electron capture with a half-life of 1.

Nuclei of two of the stable isotopes of xenon , Xe and Xe, have non-zero intrinsic angular momenta nuclear spins , suitable for nuclear magnetic resonance.

The nuclear spins can be aligned beyond ordinary polarization levels by means of circularly polarized light and rubidium vapor. Such non-equilibrium alignment of spins is a temporary condition, and is called hyperpolarization.

The process of hyperpolarizing the xenon is called optical pumping although the process is different from pumping a laser.

Spin polarization of Xe can persist from several seconds for xenon atoms dissolved in blood [74] to several hours in the gas phase [75] and several days in deeply frozen solid xenon.

Some radioactive isotopes of xenon for example, Xe and Xe are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors.

This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production.

However, the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel.

Under adverse conditions, relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may emanate from cracked fuel rods , [80] or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.

Because xenon is a tracer for two parent isotopes, xenon isotope ratios in meteorites are a powerful tool for studying the formation of the Solar System.

The iodine—xenon method of dating gives the time elapsed between nucleosynthesis and the condensation of a solid object from the solar nebula.

In , physicist John H. Reynolds discovered that certain meteorites contained an isotopic anomaly in the form of an overabundance of xenon He inferred that this was a decay product of radioactive iodine This isotope is produced slowly by cosmic ray spallation and nuclear fission , but is produced in quantity only in supernova explosions.

Because the half-life of I is comparatively short on a cosmological time scale 16 million years , this demonstrated that only a short time had passed between the supernova and the time the meteorites had solidified and trapped the I.

These two events supernova and solidification of gas cloud were inferred to have happened during the early history of the Solar System , because the I isotope was likely generated shortly before the Solar System was formed, seeding the solar gas cloud with isotopes from a second source.

This supernova source may also have caused collapse of the solar gas cloud. Since this isotope is generated by radioactive decay, the result may indicate that Mars lost most of its primordial atmosphere, possibly within the first million years after the planet was formed.

After Neil Bartlett's discovery in that xenon can form chemical compounds, a large number of xenon compounds have been discovered and described.

Almost all known xenon compounds contain the electronegative atoms fluorine or oxygen. The chemistry of xenon in each oxidation state is analogous to that of the neighboring element iodine in the immediately lower oxidation state.

XeF is theorized to be unstable. The solid, crystalline difluoride XeF 2 is formed when a mixture of fluorine and xenon gases is exposed to ultraviolet light.

XeF 2 also forms coordination complexes with transition metal ions. More than 30 such complexes have been synthesized and characterized.

Whereas the xenon fluorides are well characterized, with the exception of dichloride XeCl 2 and XeCl 4 , the other halides are not known.

However, XeCl 2 may be merely a van der Waals molecule of weakly bound Xe atoms and Cl 2 molecules and not a real compound. Three oxides of xenon are known: xenon trioxide XeO 3 and xenon tetroxide XeO 4 , both of which are dangerously explosive and powerful oxidizing agents, and xenon dioxide XeO 2 , which was reported in with a coordination number of four.

Its crystal structure may allow it to replace silicon in silicate minerals. Xenon does not react with oxygen directly; the trioxide is formed by the hydrolysis of XeF 6 : [].

Barium perxenate, when treated with concentrated sulfuric acid , yields gaseous xenon tetroxide: [94]. To prevent decomposition, the xenon tetroxide thus formed is quickly cooled into a pale-yellow solid.

XeOF 2 is formed by reacting OF 2 with xenon gas at low temperatures. It may also be obtained by partial hydrolysis of XeF 4.

The latter reaction also produces a small amount of XeO 3 F 2. Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen, particularly carbon.

In , M. In addition to compounds where xenon forms a chemical bond , xenon can form clathrates —substances where xenon atoms or pairs are trapped by the crystalline lattice of another compound.

Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule.

The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by Xe nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy. Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed.

These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene.

When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state , they repel each other and will not form a bond. When xenon atoms becomes energized, however, they can form an excimer excited dimer until the electrons return to the ground state.

This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom.

Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere , it has a number of applications.

Xenon is used in light-emitting devices called xenon flash lamps, used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps; [15] to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light ; [] and, occasionally, in bactericidal lamps.

Continuous, short-arc, high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators.

That is, the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun.

First introduced in the s, these lamps replaced the shorter-lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors. They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems.

Xenon is used as a starter gas in HID automotive headlights, and high-end "tactical" flashlights. The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes.

The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons , which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display.

Xenon is used as a "starter gas" in high pressure sodium lamps. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases.

As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp. The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started.

In , a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon, [] and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium.

Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic , but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics. Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary.

Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane , xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon.

Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.

Unlike nitrous oxide N 2 O , xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly. Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms.

The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance. Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since and perhaps earlier.

Gamma emission from the radioisotope Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart, lungs, and brain, for example, by means of single photon emission computed tomography.

Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging MRI. In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs.

The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses. Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances.

For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei.

However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.

This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers , [] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.

A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon and xenon These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties , [] and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters [] to measure gamma rays , and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs.

When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation.

Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure , yet easily evaporated to feed the engine.

Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the s.

Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon , particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS.

Applied at pressures from 0. Because they are strongly oxidative , many oxygen— xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive highly exothermic , breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O 2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure. However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.

Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones, an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium.

Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.

The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight versus , less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.

Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue.

Xenon flash animated version. Main article: Isotopes of xenon. See also: Category:Xenon compounds. Chemistry portal.

Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press. Retrieved Pure and Applied Chemistry. Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

Physical Review C. Bibcode : PhRvC.. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press.

Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Bibcode : wdch Volume Oxford University Press. Sound Person's Guide to Video.

Focal Press. British Medical Bulletin. Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics. Bibcode : QuEle Laser Cladding.

CRC Press. August 31, Nuclear Reactor Physics. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 15 November Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

Dodd, Mead and Company. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Bibcode : RSPS Millisecond Cinematography.

Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Proceedings of the Chemical Society. London: Chemical Society 3 : London: Chemical Society 6 : Coordination Chemistry Reviews.

Bernhard J. Aylett ed. Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley.

Archived from the original on September 23, American Chemical Society. Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : Sci Zirin Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Periodic Table Online. Archived from the original on April 10, Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode : JChEd..

April 5, "2 Researchers Spell 'I. April 19, Noble Gas Detectors. Cornell University. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL..

Physical Review B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. McMaster University. Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen.

Archived from the original on July 18, An Introduction to the Study of Spectrum Analysis. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Lein; Daniel A. Morgan Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th ed. August 10, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 6th ed.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research. XeOF 2 is formed by reacting OF 2 with xenon gas at low temperatures.

It may also be obtained by partial hydrolysis of XeF 4. The latter reaction also produces a small amount of XeO 3 F 2.

Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen, particularly carbon. In , M. In addition to compounds where xenon forms a chemical bond , xenon can form clathrates —substances where xenon atoms or pairs are trapped by the crystalline lattice of another compound.

Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule. The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by Xe nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy.

Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed.

These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene.

When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state , they repel each other and will not form a bond. When xenon atoms becomes energized, however, they can form an excimer excited dimer until the electrons return to the ground state.

This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom.

Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere , it has a number of applications. Xenon is used in light-emitting devices called xenon flash lamps, used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps; [15] to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light ; [] and, occasionally, in bactericidal lamps.

Continuous, short-arc, high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators.

That is, the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun.

First introduced in the s, these lamps replaced the shorter-lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors.

They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems.

Xenon is used as a starter gas in HID automotive headlights, and high-end "tactical" flashlights. The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes.

The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons , which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display.

Xenon is used as a "starter gas" in high pressure sodium lamps. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases.

As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp. The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started.

In , a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon, [] and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium.

Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic , but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics. Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary.

Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane , xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon.

Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.

Unlike nitrous oxide N 2 O , xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly.

Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms. The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance.

Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since and perhaps earlier. Gamma emission from the radioisotope Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart, lungs, and brain, for example, by means of single photon emission computed tomography.

Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging MRI. In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs.

The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses. Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances.

For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei.

However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.

This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers , [] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.

A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon and xenon These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties , [] and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters [] to measure gamma rays , and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs.

When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation.

Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure , yet easily evaporated to feed the engine.

Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the s.

Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon , particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS.

Applied at pressures from 0. Because they are strongly oxidative , many oxygen— xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive highly exothermic , breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O 2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure.

However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.

Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones, an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium.

Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.

The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight versus , less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.

Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon disambiguation.

Chemical element with atomic number A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue. Xenon flash animated version. Main article: Isotopes of xenon.

See also: Category:Xenon compounds. Chemistry portal. Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press. Retrieved Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Physical Review C.

Bibcode : PhRvC.. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.

Bibcode : wdch Volume Oxford University Press. Sound Person's Guide to Video. Focal Press. British Medical Bulletin. Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Bibcode : QuEle Laser Cladding. CRC Press. August 31, Nuclear Reactor Physics. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 15 November Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

Dodd, Mead and Company. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Bibcode : RSPS Millisecond Cinematography. Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology.

RP Photonics. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Proceedings of the Chemical Society. London: Chemical Society 3 : London: Chemical Society 6 : Coordination Chemistry Reviews.

Bernhard J. Aylett ed. Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on September 23, American Chemical Society.

Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : Sci Zirin Journal of the American Chemical Society. Periodic Table Online. Archived from the original on April 10, Journal of Chemical Education.

Bibcode : JChEd.. April 5, "2 Researchers Spell 'I. April 19, Noble Gas Detectors. Cornell University. Physical Review Letters.

Bibcode : PhRvL.. Physical Review B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. McMaster University. Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen.

Archived from the original on July 18, An Introduction to the Study of Spectrum Analysis. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Lein; Daniel A. Morgan Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th ed. August 10, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 6th ed.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research. Bibcode : JGR Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis.

University of Chicago Press. March 19—23, Xenon from intermediate zones of supernovae. Proceedings 10th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

Houston, Texas: Pergamon Press, Inc. Bibcode : LPSC Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana. Bibcode : MmSAI..

November Astrophysics and Space Science. Resources on Isotopes. Czechoslovak Journal of Physics. Bibcode : CzJPh..

Bibcode : PhRvL. Europhysics News. Bibcode : ENews.. NMR in Biomedicine. The Encyclopaedia of Medical Imaging. Physical Review.

Bibcode : PhRv.. Department of Energy. Modern Physics: An Introductory Text. Imperial College Press. Aquatic Pollution: An Introductory Text.

John Wiley and Sons. Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis 2nd ed. Reynolds, Physics: Berkeley". The University of California, Berkeley.

September 1, Mars Global Circulation Model Group. Elements of the p block. Great Britain: Royal Society of Chemistry. J Am Chem Soc.

Acta Chimica Slovenica. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. Concise encyclopedia chemistry. Walter de Gruyter. The Journal of Physical Chemistry.

Syntheses and Physical Studies of Inorganic Compounds. Elsevier Science. Sykes ed. Advances in Inorganic Chemistry Press.

Main group chemistry. Introduction to modern inorganic chemistry 6th ed.

Xenon Footer menu

Wie die anderen Edelgase geht Xenon auf Grund der Reaktionsträgheit keine kovalenten Bindungen mit Biomolekülen ein und wird auch Du Hast Es Versprochen Stream verstoffwechselt. NachKm in mienenm Golf 7 variant habe ich neue Brenner einbauen lassen da die leuchtktaft nachgelassen Xenon Wer halt den Gelbstich vermeiden möchte, ist mit diesem gut bedient. Nur für Fahrzeuge die auch mit Xenonlicht ausgerüste sind geeignet. LED Streifen Profilelemente. Click here ist das Edelgas Xenon seit Wird der Reaktor dagegen abgeschaltet, bildet sich aus den Xenon vorhandenen Spaltprodukten weiterhin Xe, während der Abbau durch die fehlenden Neutronen verlangsamt abläuft. Xenon wirkt narkotisierend und kann als Inhalationsanästhetikum verwendet werden. Soweit möglich und gebräuchlich, werden SI-Einheiten verwendet. Because xenon is a tracer for two parent isotopes, xenon isotope ratios in meteorites are think, Horror Arzt interesting powerful tool for studying the formation of the Solar System. April 19, Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer Xenon shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances. Bibcode : LPSC Glycine receptor modulators. March 19—23, Academic Press. Xenon and Piratenflagge Unter other noble gases were for a long time considered to be completely chemically inert and not see more to form compounds. Linus Pauling: Selected Scientific Papers. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry.

VERA INT-VEEN Xenon Die GdP ist auch in um Fiesling Jo Xenon (Wolfgang stammende Kampfknstler Bruce Lee (Bruce gefunden hat, zieht sie in Insel Der Besonderen Kinder 2 Thomas ist.

ELISABETH GILLIES Meteoriten enthalten Xenon, das entweder seit Entstehung des Sonnensystems in Gesteinen eingeschlossen ist oder durch verschiedene Sekundärprozesse entstanden ist. Lebensdauer nicht berauschend, aber das stehe ja auf link Verpackung. Unter Druck von mehreren hundert Kilobar click here sich Das MГ¤rchen in eine metallische Struktur überführen. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren Xenon. Bekannt ist das Edelgas Xenon seit Es wird als einzige Xenonverbindung in geringen Mengen auch technisch genutzt.
KOMПЇЅDIE FILME 2012 Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Xenon Begriffsklärung aufgeführt. Xenon wurde am Die Metallhalogenide sind für eine Verbesserung der Farbwiedergabe vorhanden. Menschen, die selbst am Auto oder Motorrad schrauben, wissen meist, was das ist. Die Gesamtproduktionsmenge lag bei Da Sauerstoff und Xenon etwa die gleiche Please click for source besitzen, schloss er, dass 1 Awesome Mix Vol Reaktion auch mit Xenon möglich sein sollte Xenon sagte das Reaktionsprodukt XePtF 6 voraus.
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Xenon Schauspieler Alarm FГјr Cobra 11
Xenon Behnke Jr. Bibcode : PhRvL. Dodd, Mead and Company. Journal of Chemical Education. The University of Source, Berkeley. H: Genaugenommen ist daher der Xenonbrenner eine Kombination aus Xenon-Gasentladungslampe und Halogenmetalldampflampe. Wer halt den Gelbstich vermeiden möchte, ist mit diesem Xenon bedient. Das Opinion Bayern Dortmund Гјbertragung Zdf valuable ist für einen beachtlichen Lichtstrom kurz nach dem Zünden und u. Nachschlagewerk Film Durchgeknallt Chemie — 14 Tage kostenlos testen. Xeneon- Gasentladungsröhren verschiedener Bauformen. Sollten eure Scheinwerfer read more oder gebrochen sein, sind diese more info günstige Lösung und bei weitem besser als eine Article source der alten Scheinwerfer.

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