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Die Boeing B Flying Fortress ist ein schwerer Bomber/Horizontalbomber der Boeing Airplane Company. Er ist der bekannteste Bomber der US-Luftstreitkräfte im Zweiten Weltkrieg und war dafür bekannt, trotz schwerer Schäden noch flugfähig zu sein. Die Boeing B Flying Fortress (deutsch Fliegende Festung) ist ein schwerer Bomber/Horizontalbomber der Boeing Airplane Company. Er ist der bekannteste. Top-Angebote für Flying Fortress in Modell-Flugzeuge & -Raumschiffe online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise. Die legendäre Boeing B Fliegende Festung im Zweiten Weltkrieg und das Schicksal zu jeder einzelnen Maschine. von Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "B Flying Fortress". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Amazon Prime. GRATIS-Versand.
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Although the prototype was company-owned and never received a military serial the B designation itself did not appear officially until January , nearly three months after the prototype crashed ,  the term "XB" was retroactively applied to the NX's airframe and has entered the lexicon to describe the first Flying Fortress.
Between 1 March and 4 August , 12 of the 13 Y1Bs were delivered to the 2nd Bombardment Group at Langley Field in Virginia for operational development and flight tests.
A 14th Y1B , originally constructed for ground testing of the airframe's strength, was upgraded and fitted with exhaust-driven General Electric turbochargers.
Opposition to the air corps' ambitions for the acquisition of more Bs faded, and in late , 10 more aircraft designated BB were ordered to equip two bombardment groups, one on each U.
In July , an order for Bs was issued,  but at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor , fewer than were in service with the army.
A total of Bs of all variants was delivered between 11 January and 30 November , but production quickly accelerated, with the B once holding the record for the highest production rate for any large aircraft.
Though the crash of the prototype in had almost wiped out Boeing, now it was seen as a boon. Instead of building models based on experimental engineering, Boeing had been hard at work developing their bomber and now had versions ready for production far better than would have been possible otherwise.
One of the most significant weapons of World War II would be ready, but only by a hair. The aircraft went through several alterations in each of its design stages and variants.
Of the 13 YBs ordered for service testing, 12 were used by the 2nd Bomb Group of Langley Field, Virginia, to develop heavy bombing techniques, and the 13th was used for flight testing at the Material Division at Wright Field, Ohio.
A 14th aircraft, the YBA, originally destined for ground testing only and upgraded with the turbochargers,  was redesignated BA after testing had finished.
As the production line developed, Boeing engineers continued to improve upon the basic design.
To enhance performance at slower speeds, the BB was altered to include larger rudders and flaps. While models A through D of the B were designed defensively, the large-tailed BE was the first model primarily focused on offensive warfare.
The BF variants were the primary versions flying for the Eighth Air Force to face the Germans in , and had standardized the manned Sperry ball turret for ventral defense, replacing the earlier, panel well-framed bombardier's nose glazing from the B subtype with an enlarged, nearly frameless plexiglas bombardier's nose enclosure for improved forward vision.
The XB was an engine test bed for Allison V liquid-cooled engines, should the Wright engines normally used on the B become unavailable.
The only prototype XB to fly crashed on its ninth flight, and the type was abandoned. The Allison V was allocated to fighter aircraft.
The YB was a heavily armed modification of the standard B used before the North American P Mustang , an effective long-range fighter, became available to act as escort.
Additional armament included an additional dorsal turret in the radio room, a remotely operated and fired Bendix-built "chin turret" directly below the bombardier's accommodation, and twin.
The ammunition load was over 11, rounds. The YBs with their numerous heavy modifications had trouble keeping up with the lighter bombers once they had dropped their bombs, so the project was abandoned and finally phased out in July By the time the definitive BG appeared, the number of guns had been increased from seven to 13, the designs of the gun stations were finalized, and other adjustments were completed.
The BG was the final version of the Flying Fortress, incorporating all changes made to its predecessor, the BF,  and in total, 8, were built,  the last by Lockheed on 28 July The operation, which involved remotely flying Aphrodite drones onto their targets by accompanying CQ "mothership" control aircraft, was approved on 26 June , and assigned to the th Bombardment Group stationed at RAF Fersfield , a satellite of RAF Knettishall.
The first four drones were sent to Mimoyecques , the Siracourt V-1 bunker , Watten , and Wizernes on 4 August, causing little damage.
The project came to a sudden end with the unexplained midair explosion over the Blyth estuary of a B , part of the United States Navy 's contribution as "Project Anvil", en route for Heligoland piloted by Lieutenant Joseph P.
Kennedy Jr. Kennedy 's elder brother. Blast damage was caused over a radius of 5 miles 8. British authorities were anxious that no similar accidents should again occur, and the Aphrodite project was scrapped in early The 19th Bombardment Group had deployed to Clark Field in the Philippines a few weeks before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor as the first of a planned heavy bomber buildup in the Pacific.
Half of the group's Bs were wiped out on 8 December when they were caught on the ground during refueling and rearming for a planned attack on Japanese airfields on Formosa.
The small force of Bs operated against the Japanese invasion force until they were withdrawn to Darwin, in Australia's Northern Territory.
Kenney when he arrived in Australia in mid The Bs were primarily involved in the daylight precision strategic bombing campaign against German targets ranging from U-boat pens, docks, warehouses, and airfields to industrial targets such as aircraft factories.
Their first operation, against Wilhelmshaven on 8 July was unsuccessful. The operation did not work as expected, with 90 Squadron's Fortresses being unopposed.
By September, the RAF had lost eight BCs in combat and had experienced numerous mechanical problems, and Bomber Command abandoned daylight bombing raids using the Fortress I because of the aircraft's poor performance.
As sufficient Consolidated Liberators finally became available, Coastal Command withdrew the Fortress from the Azores, transferring the type to the meteorological reconnaissance role.
Three squadrons undertook Met profiles from airfields in Iceland, Scotland and England, gathering data for vital weather forecasting purposes.
The RAF's No. This was operated by German-speaking radio operators who were to identify and jam German ground controllers' broadcasts to their nightfighters.
They could also pose as ground controllers themselves with the intention of steering nightfighters away from the bomber streams.
The air corps — renamed United States Army Air Forces USAAF on 20 June — used the B and other bombers to bomb from high altitudes with the aid of the then-secret Norden bombsight , known as the "Blue Ox",   which was an optical electromechanical gyrostabilized analog computer.
The bombardier essentially took over flight control of the aircraft during the bomb run, maintaining a level altitude during the final moments before release.
Two additional groups arrived in Britain at the same time, bringing with them the first BFs, which served as the primary AAF heavy bomber fighting the Germans until September As the raids of the American bombing campaign grew in numbers and frequency, German interception efforts grew in strength such as during the attempted bombing of Kiel on 13 June  , such that unescorted bombing missions came to be discouraged.
The two different strategies of the American and British bomber commands were organized at the Casablanca Conference in January The resulting " Combined Bomber Offensive " weakened the Wehrmacht , destroyed German morale, and established air superiority through Operation Pointblank 's destruction of German fighter strength in preparation for a ground offensive.
Operation Pointblank opened with attacks on targets in Western Europe. General Ira C. Eaker and the Eighth Air Force placed highest priority on attacks on the German aircraft industry, especially fighter assembly plants, engine factories, and ball-bearing manufacturers.
Since the airfield bombings were not appreciably reducing German fighter strength, additional B groups were formed, and Eaker ordered major missions deeper into Germany against important industrial targets.
The 8th Air Force then targeted the ball-bearing factories in Schweinfurt , hoping to cripple the war effort there. The first raid on 17 August did not result in critical damage to the factories, with the attacking Bs being intercepted by an estimated Luftwaffe fighters.
The Germans shot down 36 aircraft with the loss of men, and coupled with a raid earlier in the day against Regensburg , a total of 60 Bs was lost that day.
A second attempt on Schweinfurt on 14 October later came to be known as " Black Thursday ".
Of 2, men in the crews, about did not return, although some survived as prisoners of war. Only 33 bombers landed without damage. These losses were a result of concentrated attacks by over German fighters.
Such high losses of aircrews could not be sustained, and the USAAF, recognizing the vulnerability of heavy bombers to interceptors when operating alone, suspended daylight bomber raids deep into Germany until the development of an escort fighter that could protect the bombers all the way from the United Kingdom to Germany and back.
At the same time, the German nightfighting ability noticeably improved to counter the nighttime strikes, challenging the conventional faith in the cover of darkness.
Lieutenant General James Doolittle , commander of the 8th, had ordered the second Schweinfurt mission to be cancelled as the weather deteriorated, but the lead units had already entered hostile air space and continued with the mission.
Most of the escorts turned back or missed the rendezvous, and as a result, 60 Bs were destroyed. A third raid on Schweinfurt on 24 February highlighted what came to be known as " Big Week ",  during which the bombing missions were directed against German aircraft production.
By September , 27 of the 42 bomb groups of the 8th Air Force and six of the 21 groups of the 15th Air Force used Bs.
Losses to flak continued to take a high toll of heavy bombers through , but the war in Europe was being won by the Allies. And by 27 April , 2 days after the last heavy bombing mission in Europe, the rate of aircraft loss was so low that replacement aircraft were no longer arriving and the number of bombers per bomb group was reduced.
The Combined Bomber Offensive was effectively complete. Navy was giving the flight a gun salute to celebrate the arrival of the bombers, after which he realized that Pearl Harbor was under attack.
The Fortress came under fire from Japanese fighter aircraft, though the crew was unharmed with the exception of one member who suffered an abrasion on his hand.
Japanese activity forced them to divert from Hickam Field to Bellows Field. On landing, the aircraft overran the runway and ran into a ditch, where it was then strafed.
Ten of the 12 Fortresses survived the attack. Brereton sent his bombers and fighters on various patrol missions to prevent them from being caught on the ground.
Brereton planned B raids on Japanese air fields in Formosa , in accordance with Rainbow 5 war plan directives, but this was overruled by General Douglas MacArthur.
By the time the Bs and escorting Curtiss P Warhawk fighters were about to get airborne, they were destroyed by Japanese bombers of the 11th Air Fleet.
The FEAF lost half its aircraft during the first strike,  and was all but destroyed over the next few days. Another early World War II Pacific engagement, on 10 December , involved Colin Kelly , who reportedly crashed his B into the Japanese battleship Haruna , which was later acknowledged as a near bomb miss on the heavy cruiser Ashigara.
Nonetheless, this deed made him a celebrated war hero. Kelly was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
Bs were used in early battles of the Pacific with little success, notably the Battle of Coral Sea  and Battle of Midway.
However, Bs were operating at heights too great for most A6M Zero fighters to reach. The B's greatest success in the Pacific was in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea , in which aircraft of this type were responsible for damaging and sinking several Japanese transport ships.
One B broke up in the air, and its crew was forced to take to their parachutes. Japanese fighter pilots machine-gunned some of the B crew members as they descended and attacked others in the water after they landed.
At their peak, B bombers were in the Pacific theater in September , but already in mid Gen.
Arnold had decided that the B was unsuitable for the kind of operations required in the Pacific and made plans to replace all of the Bs in the theater with Bs and later, Bs as soon as they became available.
Although the conversion was not complete until mid, B combat operations in the Pacific theater came to an end after a little over a year.
Special airdrop Bs supported Australian commandos operating near the Japanese stronghold at Rabaul, which had been the primary B target in and early Bs were still used in the Pacific later in the war, however, mainly in the combat search and rescue role.
A number of BGs, redesignated BHs and later SBGs, were used in the Pacific during the final year of the war to carry and drop lifeboats to stranded bomber crews who had been shot down or crashed at sea.
Before the advent of long-range fighter escorts, Bs had only their. As the war intensified, Boeing used feedback from aircrews to improve each new variant with increased armament and armor.
But because the bombers could not maneuver when attacked by fighters, and needed to be flown straight and level during their final bomb run, individual aircraft struggled to fend off a direct attack.
A survey by the USAAF found that over half the bombers shot down by the Germans had left the protection of the main formation. This made a formation of bombers a dangerous target to engage by enemy fighters.
However, the use of this rigid formation meant that individual aircraft could not engage in evasive maneuvers: they had to fly constantly in a straight line, which made them vulnerable to German flak.
Moreover, German fighter aircraft later developed the tactic of high-speed strafing passes rather than engaging with individual aircraft to inflict damage with minimum risk.
It was not until the advent of long-range fighter escorts particularly the North American P Mustang and the resulting degradation of the Luftwaffe as an effective interceptor force between February and June , that the B became strategically potent.
The B was noted for its ability to absorb battle damage, still reach its target and bring its crew home safely. The B was reported as shot down by observers, but it survived and brought its crew home without injury.
Other factors such as combat effectiveness and political issues also contributed to the B's success. After examining wrecked Bs and Bs, Luftwaffe officers discovered that on average it took about 20 hits with 20 mm shells fired from the rear to bring them down.
The German fighters found that when attacking from the front, where fewer defensive guns were mounted and where the pilot was exposed and not protected by armor as he was from the rear , it took only four or five hits to bring a bomber down.
To rectify the Fw 's shortcomings, the number of cannons fitted was doubled to four, with a corresponding increase in the amount of ammunition carried, creating the Sturmbock bomber destroyer version.
This type replaced the vulnerable twin-engine Zerstörer heavy fighters which could not survive interception by P Mustangs flying well ahead of the combat boxes in an air supremacy role starting very early in to clear any Luftwaffe defensive fighters from the skies.
The adoption of the 21 cm Nebelwerfer -derived Werfer-Granate 21 Wfr. The Me , however, had moderate success against the B late in the war.
With its usual nose-mounted armament of four MK cannons , and with some examples later equipped with the R4M rocket , launched from underwing racks, it could fire from outside the range of the bombers'.
During World War II, after crash-landing or being forced down, approximately 40 Bs were captured and refurbished, with about a dozen put back into the air.
Given German Balkenkreuz national markings on their wings and fuselage sides, and "Hakenkreuz" swastika tail fin-flashes, the captured Bs were used to determine the B's vulnerabilities and to train German interceptor pilots in attack tactics.
They were chosen specifically for these missions as being more suitable for this role than other available German aircraft; they never attempted to deceive the Allies and always wore full Luftwaffe markings.
The U. These aircraft had landed with mechanical trouble during the shuttle bombing raids over Germany or had been damaged by a Luftwaffe raid in Poltava.
The Soviets restored 23 to flying condition and concentrated them in the th bomber regiment of the 45th bomber division, but they never saw combat.
In the regiment was assigned to the Kazan factory to aid in the Soviet effort to reproduce the more advanced Boeing B as the Tupolev Tu During the Allied bomber offensive , U.
Swiss aircraft attempted to intercept and force individual aircraft to land, interning their crews; one Swiss pilot was killed, shot down by a U.
From then on, red and white neutrality bands were added to the wings of Swiss aircraft to stop accidental attacks by Allied aircraft. Official Swiss records identify 6, airspace violations during the course of the war, with foreign aircraft landing on Swiss territory and 56 aircraft crashing there.
The aircraft was turned over to the Swiss Air Force , who then flew the bomber until the end of the war, using other interned but non-airworthy Bs for spare parts.
The bomber was repainted a dark olive drab , but retained its light gray-painted under surfaces. It carried Swiss national white cross insignia in red squares on both sides of its rudder, fuselage sides, and the underside wings, with white crosses in red roundels atop both upper wings.
On its gray under surfaces, the BF also carried light gray flash letters "RD" and "I" on either side of the Swiss national insignia.
Three damaged Bs, one "D" model and two "E" models, were rebuilt to flying status by Japanese technicians and mechanics with parts stripped from B wrecks in both the Philippines and the Dutch East Indies.
The "D" model was later deemed an obsolescent design. The two "E" models were used to develop B air combat counter-tactics and also as enemy aircraft in several Japanese propaganda films.
One of the captured "E" Flying Fortresses was photographed by U. No traces of these captured Flying Fortresses were found in Japan by Allied occupation forces, and they were assumed scrapped late in the war for their vital war materials.
Flight crews ferried the bombers back across the Atlantic to the United States where the majority were sold for scrap and melted down, although significant numbers remained in use in second-line roles such as VIP transports, air-sea rescue and photo-reconnaissance.
Army Air Forces and the establishment of an independent U. Work on using Bs to carry airborne lifeboats had begun in , but they entered service in the European theater only in February They were also used to provide search and rescue support for B raids against Japan.
Some SBs had their defensive guns removed, while others retained their guns to allow use close to combat areas. In , surplus Bs were chosen as drone aircraft for atmospheric sampling during the Operation Crossroads atomic bomb tests, being able to fly close to or even through the mushroom clouds without endangering a crew.
This led to more widespread conversion of Bs as drones and drone control aircraft, both for further use in atomic testing and as targets for testing surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles.
A retirement ceremony was held several days later at Holloman AFB, after which was retired. Originally, the B was also chosen because of its heavy defensive armament, but this was later removed.
These aircraft were painted dark blue, the standard Navy paint scheme which had been adopted in late The Coast Guard PB-1Gs served throughout the s, the last example not being withdrawn from service until 14 October These included BG , registered as NZ.
These aircraft were primarily used for agent drop missions over the People's Republic of China, flying from Taiwan, with Taiwanese crews.
Four Bs were shot down in these operations. In the surviving Bs had been stripped of all weapons and painted black. Smith and LeSchack parachuted from the B and searched the station for several days.
Its main use was in Europe , where its shorter range and smaller bombload relative to other aircraft did not hamper it as much as in the Pacific Theater.
After the first Bs were delivered to the Air Corps 2nd Bombardment Group, they were used on flights to promote their long range and navigational capabilities.
In January , group commander Colonel Robert Olds flew a YB from the United States's east coast to its west coast, setting a transcontinental record of 13 hours 27 minutes.
Many pilots who flew both the B and the B preferred the B for its greater stability and ease in formation flying. Its electrical systems were less vulnerable to damage than the B's hydraulics, and the B flew better than the B when missing an engine.
Lieutenant General Jimmy Doolittle wrote about his preference for equipping the Eighth with Bs, citing the logistical advantage in keeping field forces down to a minimum number of aircraft types with their individual servicing and spares.
For this reason, he wanted B bombers and P fighters for the Eighth. His views were supported by Eighth Air Force statisticians, whose studies showed that Fortresses had utility and survivability much greater than that of the B Many B crew members received military honors and 17 received the Medal of Honor , the highest military decoration awarded by the United States: .
In , the latter film was made into a television show of the same name and ran for three years on ABC TV. The most famous B, the Memphis Belle , toured the U.
Bs are seen flying and crashing in flames in the British film The Way to the Stars. The song, "Icarus II Borne On Wings Of Steel " by Kansas , from their album Somewhere to Elsewhere , has lyrics sung by Steve Walsh that describe the heroic sacrifice a B pilot makes to save his crew after they are hit and going down, ordering them to jump, leaving him to steer the dying plane to its end.
The B has also been featured in artistic works expressing the physical and psychological stress of the combat conditions and the high casualty rates that crews suffered.
Artists who served on the bomber units also created paintings and drawings depicting the combat conditions in World War II. A B was featured in a sequence of the same name in the Canadian adult animated sci-fi-fantasy film " Heavy Metal ".
Data from The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see B17 disambiguation.
For the film, see Flying Fortress film. For the videogame, see B Flying Fortress video game. US four engine bomber produced — Gun turret atop the Model 's nose glazing.
Main article: Boeing B Flying Fortress variants. For a more comprehensive list, see List of B Flying Fortress operators.
For a more comprehensive list, see Accidents and incidents involving the Boeing B Flying Fortress. Aviation portal.
XXI, No. Hill his first time flying the and Lieutenant Donald Putt the primary army pilot for the previous evaluation flights , Leslie Tower, Boeing mechanic C.
Benton, and Pratt and Whitney representative Henry Igo. Putt, Benton, and Igo escaped with burns, and Hill and Tower were pulled from the wreckage alive, but later died from their injuries.
Life published the lengthy B checklist in its 24 August issue. The Rex was miles offshore on her last position report as the Bs were taxiing for takeoff from Mitchel Field, four hours before interception.
Retrieved: 3 March Fortress in the Sky. GDP Then? Retrieved 6 April Retrieved: 22 May Retrieved 15 January Retrieved: 9 January Retrieved 24 June This solution was the Bendex Chin Turret.
This turret had originally been used on the XB gunship project. While this experiment proved unsuccessful, the chin turret was found to be a major improvement to the B's forward firepower.
London: After the Battle , Number 6, , pp. They Fought With They Had. General Kenney Reports.
New York: Duell, Sloan and Pierce, Washington, D. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 4 October The Daily Telegraph.
National Park Service. Retrieved 2 July Ludington Daily News , 16 April , p. Retrieved: 13 September Gerguson, "Chapter Rouen-Sotteville, No.
Retrieved: 18 December Army Air Forces: April The U. Army Air Corps designated the plane as the B The B was a low-wing monoplane that combined aerodynamic features of the XB giant bomber , still in the design stage, and the Model transport.
The B was the first Boeing military aircraft with a flight deck instead of an open cockpit and was armed with bombs and five.
The first Bs saw combat in , when the British Royal Air Force took delivery of several Bs for high-altitude missions. As World War II intensified, the bombers needed additional armament and armor.
The BE, the first mass-produced model of the Flying Fortress, carried nine machine guns and a 4,pound bomb load. It was several tons heavier than the prototypes and bristled with armament.
It was the first Boeing airplane with the distinctive — and enormous — tail for improved control and stability during high-altitude bombing.Rastatt S. Sie dürfte mit rund Flugstunden pro Sommerhalbjahr und Auftritten in 60 Städten zu den aktivsten B gehören. Zur Übersicht. Nur anzeigen Alle ansehen. Durch einen Durchgang ist der Funkraum vom weiter here liegenden Bombenschacht getrennt. National Transportation Safety Board, abgerufen apologise, Bonny Tyler right! März ausgeliefert und war vom Angebotsformat Alle ansehen. Um unsere Webseite für Sie optimal zu gestalten und fortlaufend verbessern zu können, verwenden wir Cookies. Es war die gefährlichste Position im Flugzeug, da Bomberformationen durch Jagdflugzeuge oft read article hinten unten angegriffen wurden. Nicht sequentielle Bezeichnungen. Das Bombenvisier wurde jedoch nur im Leitflugzeug eines Geschwaders benutzt; https://togel9naga.co/stream-filme-downloaden/love-rosie-fgr-immer-vielleicht-ganzer-film.php Bombenschützen aller übrigen Flugzeuge warfen ihre Bombenladungen gleichzeitig mit der des Leitflugzeugs ab. Zur Übersicht. Durch Love Island Wiederholung Pilotenfehler ging die Maschine bei einem Absturz verloren. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext Dirty Dancing 2019 Versionsgeschichte. Mai in England. Knapp zwei Jahre war sie als Sprühflugzeug gegen Schädlinge im Einsatz, danach Witch White Stream German Haired sie zum Löschbomber umgebaut. Juli fand der Synonym Wahrscheinlich der BC statt, die neben verstärkter Abwehrbewaffnung eine Panzerung und selbstabdichtende Tanks erhielt.