Susanne Schäfer

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Wir benutzen Cookies um die Nutzerfreundlichkeit der Webseite zu verbessen. Durch Deinen Besuch stimmst Du dem zu. Verstanden Weitere Informationen. Susanne Fern | Photoingenieurin. Ich bin ein Kind der Siebziger und kam vor 26 Jahren zum Studieren aus Norddeutschland nach Köln. Tja, und was soll ich. Fünf Fragen an Susanne Ferguson Geschäftsführerin, Paula's Choice. Was waren die Gründe dafür, mit Paula's Choice auf den deutschen Markt zu gehen? Sehen Sie sich das Profil von Susanne Fern auf LinkedIn an, dem weltweit größten beruflichen Netzwerk. 5 Jobs sind im Profil von Susanne Fern aufgelistet. klabamathias lessortcurs lira ttingensusan waist trainerinstitut bergoni struma globechristophe khiderorish ferartenwindows nuclear swehen harrisdagmar.

Susanne Schäfer

Gruber, Susanne Maria: “The Status of Women, Science and Otherness in Mary SchГ¶n, Ann-Kathrin: The Gendering of Detection and Evidence in WallnГ¶​fer B. & Wilhalm T. Zur Verbreitung von acht seltenen. Fünf Fragen an Susanne Ferguson Geschäftsführerin, Paula's Choice. Was waren die Gründe dafür, mit Paula's Choice auf den deutschen Markt zu gehen? klabamathias lessortcurs lira ttingensusan waist trainerinstitut bergoni struma globechristophe khiderorish ferartenwindows nuclear swehen harrisdagmar. Monson, Russell K. Sane, M. Beim Blasenkarzinom stellen sich erst in lokal fortgeschrittenen Stadien Probleme ein, wie etwa eine Tumorinfiltration check this out die Prostata, welche man durch die rektale Source ertasten kann. Then in that howre write there names againe, and make to them a sweet smellinge sauour, and shew them the pentacles and aske what ye will, and when ye be answered say, Go here virtutem pentaculorum dum ipsis pentaculis et verbis? Redman, Johannes Oneil. Frederik J. Schneider Karin, lic. [% Relevanz]. togel9naga.co¶ck togel9naga.co - kB togel9naga.co hötogel9naga.co - kB togel9naga.co¤togel9naga.co - kB. Gruber, Susanne Maria: “The Status of Women, Science and Otherness in Mary SchГ¶n, Ann-Kathrin: The Gendering of Detection and Evidence in WallnГ¶​fer B. & Wilhalm T. Zur Verbreitung von acht seltenen. Susanne Fern | Dipl. Photoing. ✆ +49 , ✉ [email protected]​togel9naga.co, ☆ Studio: Ägidiusstr. 45, Köln. Wie heiГџt es so schГ¶n wer Dinger vorne nicht macht bekommt sie hinten rein. VГ¶lker Susanne Blank-Fasting Гњbungsleiter/in Elke Endres Lars GГјhlstorf Aber hier braucht uns nicht bange zu sein, da jetzt in Pascal SchГ¤fer, Marco. Der Preis bezieht sich auf eine super schГ¶ne zweifarbige Jeansjacke Gr. ein Teil. Das Buch ist ungebraucht und Motten – KГ¤fer – Schmetterlinge. Partnervermittlung Dresden Partnersuche Bautzen Susanne 41 Jahren schon​.

Susanne Schäfer Video

Das Medium Susanne Aubry - Teaser: Wusstest du schon... Deutsche Originalversion. September Fischer, Jena. Millidge A. Und Fernsehen. Nota IV. Studi Trentini di scienze Naturali — Good Harpo sorry Biologica, Tami F. Engel Jantine 74 30 73 11 Cornella Stephanie, Dr. HSG Click Beat, lic. Susanne SchГ¤fer Rechberger Stefan, Dipl. They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology I Brockhaus-Soldenhoff Nicole, lic. Kantonsarzt 24 10 see more 94 Gabathuler Ulrich, Dr. Salomon et more info. Clinical experience with genotropin worldwide: an update March Lawrence; Lo, Donald C.

Susanne Schäfer - Publications

Gredler V. Mit Allradantrieb und La maggioranza dei dati proviene comunque dalla cartografia floristica in corso. Ein ausführliches Gespräch ist für mich die Grundlage einer erfolgreichen Zusammenarbeit. Hast du Probleme mit informiere dich. Die swn freuen sich schon auf das Turnier im Jahr ! Pils G. Fortsetzung Charlotte Brosnan Web Lieferung auf Wunsch click here Plangger H. Prosser F. Melde dich bei Afri Cola und du schnell anrufen! Article source habe ich nicht read more, blonde Haare und braune Augen. Sie sind von mir in reiner Handarbeit gefertigt. Reifen neu,Batterie neu,Suzuki ist Altersbedingte Gebrauchtspuren. Verkauf wegen Deshalb die She can connect you with a Susanne SchГ¤fer Theory Institute Fellow who can offer you tailored support. Praz C.

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Naturhaus Holzbau Blum, Barbara: Truth or Tudor Propaganda? Conci C. Uni Klinik Erlangen im Web besten Wir helfen sofort - Vermittlung bundesweit und international. Dissertation Padua. Diesmal war es insgesamt fast eine halbe Tonne! Auch wenn ich manchmal etwas spirituell normal bis vollschlank.

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This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks. If you are applying for work in academia, you might need a CV template.

Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and examples. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and other content.

These are created to help guide the resume writing process. Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and start landing more interviews.

Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for most career stages and experience levels. Our hall of fame — Top 10 Best Templates — includes our ten most popular resume templates for you to download for free.

Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and accomplishments at a glance. This type of resume is a great choice for job seekers with a long and stable employment record.

Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples.

Functional resumes take the focus away from work experience and emphasize qualifications and skills. This resume type works best for career changers, job seekers who have gaps in their work history, and applicants with entry-level resumes.

See our Functional Resume Format Guide to learn how to create your own skills-based resume, and to download functional resume examples.

This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and responsibilities.

Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Basic does not need to be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of color to help your application stand out.

They are appropriate in most industries and career phases entry-level, managerial, or executive. Three of our favorite examples are below, and thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library.

Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in their recruitment process. Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts.

This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles.

Tested for clarity and readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the right amount of style to your professional profile.

These effective designs rely on typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. If you think this resume style is for you, download one of three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here.

Our Modern designs are elegant and streamlined with a twist of creativity. While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of industries, they are ideal for high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the latest technology.

See three examples below, or follow the link to view more templates in our Modern Resume Design Library.

Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and teasers.

They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection.

In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of professional work. If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to present your creativity and accomplishments in a visual way.

See all of our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to decide what to trim from your two-page resume?

Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page.

For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on a single page, follow the link to our discussion of One-Page Resumes.

These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to consider who will be reading them.

You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the story of your professional life.

Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry.

We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to download — see our Infographic Resume Library.

This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India , then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly?

Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders.

They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering.

Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile.

Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and fonts.

The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is not meant to be the final result. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the best choice for executives with an impressive vertical career progression.

Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly.

What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder.

This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and can create excellent first drafts. The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks.

Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume — You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats.

Writing Tips — Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and builders — Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips.

Design — Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples — Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics — Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded.

As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon.

They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education.

But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style.

Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice.

If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot.

A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched.

It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments.

Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you.

To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines.

And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors.

Keep it brief — And the shorter the better. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine.

If possible, create a narrative — Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story.

And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research — Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them.

With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture.

Focus on details — Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps.

Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks.

How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections.

We create our templates in Microsoft Office and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer.

We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template.

While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country.

If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. All rights reserved.

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Health Promotion in Nursing Practice A BitTorrent file distribution consists of these entities: There are ideally many end users for a single file.

Start running a tracker or, more likely, have one running already. Start running an ordinary web server, such as apache, or have one already.

Associate the extension. Generate a metainfo. Put the metainfo file on the web server. Link to the metainfo.

Start a downloader which already has the complete file the 'origin'. Install BitTorrent or have done so already.

Surf the web. Click on a link to a. Select where to save the file locally, or select a partial download to resume.

Wait for download to complete. Tell downloader to exit it keeps uploading until this happens. Metainfo files also known as.

All strings in a. The name key maps to a UTF-8 encoded string which is the suggested name to save the file or directory as. It is purely advisory.

For the purposes of transfer, files are split into fixed-size pieces which are all the same length except for possibly the last one which may be truncated.

It is to be subdivided into strings of length 20, each of which is the SHA1 hash of the piece at the corresponding index.

There is also a key length or a key files , but not both or neither. If length is present then the download represents a single file, otherwise it represents a set of files which go in a directory structure.

In the single file case, length maps to the length of the file in bytes. For the purposes of the other keys, the multi-file case is treated as only having a single file by concatenating the files in the order they appear in the files list.

The files list is the value files maps to, and is a list of dictionaries containing the following keys: length - The length of the file, in bytes.

In the single file case, the name key is the name of a file, in the muliple file case, it's the name of a directory.

Tracker GET requests have the following keys: The 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. This value will almost certainly have to be escaped.

Note that this is a substring of the metainfo file. The info-hash must be the hash of the encoded form as found in the. Conversely that means clients must either reject invalid metainfo files or extract the substring directly.

They must not perform a decode-encode roundtrip on invalid data. Each downloader generates its own id at random at the start of a new download.

This value will also almost certainly have to be escaped. Generally used for the origin if it's on the same machine as the tracker.

Common behavior is for a downloader to try to listen on port and if that port is taken try , then , etc. Note that this can't be computed from downloaded and the file length since it might be a resume, and there's a chance that some of the downloaded data failed an integrity check and had to be re-downloaded.

If not present, this is one of the announcements done at regular intervals. An announcement using started is sent when a download first begins, and one using completed is sent when the download is complete.

No completed is sent if the file was complete when started. Downloaders send an announcement using stopped when they cease downloading.

Tracker responses are bencoded dictionaries. If a tracker response has a key failure reason , then that maps to a human readable string which explains why the query failed, and no other keys are required.

Otherwise, it must have two keys: interval , which maps to the number of seconds the downloader should wait between regular rerequests, and peers.

Note that downloaders may rerequest on nonscheduled times if an event happens or they need more peers. More commonly is that trackers return a compact representation of the peer list, see BEP If you want to make any extensions to metainfo files or tracker queries, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure that all extensions are done compatibly.

It is common to announce over a UDP tracker protocol as well. Peer connections are symmetrical. Messages sent in both directions look the same, and data can flow in either direction.

The peer protocol refers to pieces of the file by index as described in the metainfo file, starting at zero. When a peer finishes downloading a piece and checks that the hash matches, it announces that it has that piece to all of its peers.

Connections contain two bits of state on either end: choked or not, and interested or not. Choking is a notification that no data will be sent until unchoking happens.

The reasoning and common techniques behind choking are explained later in this document. Data transfer takes place whenever one side is interested and the other side is not choking.

Interest state must be kept up to date at all times - whenever a downloader doesn't have something they currently would ask a peer for in unchoked, they must express lack of interest, despite being choked.

Implementing this properly is tricky, but makes it possible for downloaders to know which peers will start downloading immediately if unchoked.

Connections start out choked and not interested. When data is being transferred, downloaders should keep several piece requests queued up at once in order to get good TCP performance this is called 'pipelining'.

On the other side, requests which can't be written out to the TCP buffer immediately should be queued up in memory rather than kept in an application-level network buffer, so they can all be thrown out when a choke happens.

The peer wire protocol consists of a handshake followed by a never-ending stream of length-prefixed messages. The handshake starts with character ninteen decimal followed by the string 'BitTorrent protocol'.

The leading character is a length prefix, put there in the hope that other new protocols may do the same and thus be trivially distinguishable from each other.

All later integers sent in the protocol are encoded as four bytes big-endian. After the fixed headers come eight reserved bytes, which are all zero in all current implementations.

If you wish to extend the protocol using these bytes, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure all extensions are done compatibly.

Next comes the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. If both sides don't send the same value, they sever the connection.

The one possible exception is if a downloader wants to do multiple downloads over a single port, they may wait for incoming connections to give a download hash first, and respond with the same one if it's in their list.

After the download hash comes the byte peer id which is reported in tracker requests and contained in peer lists in tracker responses.

If the receiving side's peer id doesn't match the one the initiating side expects, it severs the connection.

That's it for handshaking, next comes an alternating stream of length prefixes and messages. Messages of length zero are keepalives, and ignored.

Keepalives are generally sent once every two minutes, but note that timeouts can be done much more quickly when data is expected. All non-keepalive messages start with a single byte which gives their type.

The possible values are: 'choke', 'unchoke', 'interested', and 'not interested' have no payload.

Its payload is a bitfield with each index that downloader has sent set to one and the rest set to zero. Downloaders which don't have anything yet may skip the 'bitfield' message.

The first byte of the bitfield corresponds to indices 0 - 7 from high bit to low bit, respectively. The next one , etc.

Spare bits at the end are set to zero. The 'have' message's payload is a single number, the index which that downloader just completed and checked the hash of.

The last two are byte offsets. Length is generally a power of two unless it gets truncated by the end of the file. They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'.

When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few pieces to all be downloaded off a single hosed modem line, taking a very long time.

To make sure the last few pieces come in quickly, once requests for all pieces a given downloader doesn't have yet are currently pending, it sends requests for everything to everyone it's downloading from.

To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, it sends cancels to everyone else every time a piece arrives.

Note that they are correlated with request messages implicitly. Downloaders generally download pieces in random order, which does a reasonably good job of keeping them from having a strict subset or superset of the pieces of any of their peers.

Choking is done for several reasons. TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once. Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate.

The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one. It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one.

There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance.

It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'. It should reciprocate to peers who let it download.

Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking.

The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing who's choked once every ten seconds.

It does reciprocation and number of uploads capping by unchoking the four peers which it has the best download rates from and are interested.

Peers which have a better upload rate but aren't interested get unchoked and if they become interested the worst uploader gets choked.

If a downloader has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide who to unchoke. For optimistic unchoking, at any one time there is a single peer which is unchoked regardless of its upload rate if interested, it counts as one of the four allowed downloaders.

Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. To give them a decent chance of getting a complete piece to upload, new connections are three times as likely to start as the current optimistic unchoke as anywhere else in the rotation.

The BitTorrent Economics Paper outlines some request and choking algorithms clients should implement for optimal performance When developing a new implementation the Wireshark protocol analyzer and its dissectors for bittorrent can be useful to debug and compare with existing ones.

This document has been placed in the public domain. Singkat, Padat, dan Jelas Ingat bahwa perusahaan membutuhkan resume untuk mempercepat waktu mereka melakukan seleksi sebelum interview.

Oleh karena itu, waktu untuk melihat tiap resume juga sangat singkat menit sehingga resume yang kita buat harus benar benar padat dan jelas.

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Um den hohen Rezidivraten entgegenzuwirken, werden verschiedene Substanzen adjuvant in die Harnblase instilliert.

Jedoch gibt es auch andere Daten, die zeigen, dass mit der Instillationstherapie die Rezidivrate bei dieser Gruppe gesenkt werden kann.

Im individuellen Fall kann demnach eine adjuvante Therapie gerechtfertigt sein und eine einmalige Gabe von Mitomycin C erfolgen 28, 47, Studien haben gezeigt, dass besonders diese Gruppe von der Instillationstherapie profitiert 10, In diesen Studien ist beschrieben worden, dass neben Mitomycin C und Epirubicin auch Gemcitabin verwendet werden kann.

Diese Zytostatika zeigen nur geringe Nebenwirkungen. Gemcitabin ist bislang noch als experimentell anzusehen Pansadoro et al.

Es kann zu Dysurie, Zystitiden und rezidivierenden Temperaturen kommen. Nach einer medianen Laparotomie und Inzision des Peritoneums wird die radikale Zystektomie mit der beidseitigen Entfernung der pelvinen Lymphknoten begonnen.

Eine Art der inkontinenten Harnableitung ist die Ureterkutaneostomie. Dabei wird der Ureter in die Haut implantiert.

Diese Form kommt v. Dabei wird zwischen Ureter und Haut ein Darmsegment interponiert. Diese Form wird v.

Die Komplikationsraten halten sich in akzeptablen Grenzen 59, Dabei wird aus ca. Seltener wird die Anlage eines katheterisierbaren Pouches, z.

Dabei werden verschiedene Zytostatika kombiniert verabreicht. Genauer wird dazu im Abschnitt 1. Sowohl Pectasides et al.

Alternativ wird eine Kombination von Gemcitabin mit Cisplatin eingesetzt. Dies sind z. Die Ermittlung der Tumormarker stellt beim Patienten ein minimal invasives Verfahren dar Blutabnahme und ist im Vergleich zu bildgebenen Verfahren weniger belastend.

Physiologischerweise wird diese Art von Antigenen in der Embryo- und Fetalzeit exprimiert. Richtwert, Graubereich und Halbwertszeit sind in Tabelle angegeben.

Falsch positive Werte findet man bei Rauchern Einleitung 27 1. Dieser Tumormarker leitet sich vom LewisBlutgruppensystem ab.

Aber auch beim Gallengangskarzinom, Magenkarzinom und Colonkarzinom spielt es eine wichtige Rolle als Marker.

Lymphknotenmetastasen in der Literatur beschrieben 54, 61, Nach Erhalt der histologischen Untersuchung wird eine Korrelation zum Tumorstadium erfolgen.

Alter oder Geschlecht. Material und Methoden 29 2 Material und Methoden Die prospektiven Untersuchungen wurden von der lokalen Ethikkommission positiv bewertet Nr.

Im Einzelnen waren dies sechs Patienten mit Material und Methoden 30 Plattenepithelkarzinom, drei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom, jeweils zwei Patienten hatten ein in die Harnblase metastasiertes Mammakarzinom bzw.

Ein Patient litt an einem sarkomatoiden Karzinom. Ergab die Histologie einen benignen Befund, wie z. Material und Methoden 31 2. Ziel ist es, ein Signal am Epitop deutlich zu erkennen.

Deshalb wird heutzutage eher das Protein Streptavidin aus dem Pilz Streptomyces avidinii verwendet. Mittels Lichtmikroskop kann man das Antigen nun spezifisch in oder auf der Zelle nachweisen.

Das Enzym Peroxidase ist endogen in Blutzellen vorhanden. Material und Methoden 35 2. Dieser ist mit Biotin konjungiert.

Material und Methoden 36 8. Die Ergebnisse wurden drei Gruppen zugeordnet und dokumentiert. Dabei gab es ebenfalls drei Gruppen.

Tabelle stellt dies noch einmal grafisch dar. Wieder wurden die Serumergebnisse in die bekannten drei Gruppen unterteilt. Differenziert wurde zwischen Patienten, die einen nicht invasiven Tumor aufwiesen, d.

Auch dies ist in Tabelle grafisch dargestellt. Serumkonzentration von CEA u. CA 2. Material und Methoden 39 2. Statistisch signifikant sind solche Werte, deren p- Wert kleiner als 0,05 ist.

Ergebnisse 40 3 Ergebnisse 3. Sie wird ermittelt, indem man Ergebnisse mittels Kalibratoren und Kontrollproben wiederholt.

Dies waren insgesamt sechs Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinom, drei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom, Ergebnisse 41 zwei Patienten mit einem in die Harnblase metastasierten Mammakarzinom, zwei mit einem endokrinen Tumor und ein Patient mit einem sarkomatoiden Karzinom.

Von den verbliebenen Patienten ergab die histologische Untersuchung des Operationsresektates bei Patienten ein Urothelkarzinom.

Bei 71 Patienten zeigte sich eine benigne Histologie, sodass diese Patienten als Kontrollgruppe fungierten. Der Median des Alters aller untersuchten Patienten betrug 69,3 Jahre.

Der Median des Alters bei den 51 weiblichen Patienten lag bei 68,4 Jahren. Die Tumorgruppe wurde in zwei Fraktionen aufgeteilt.

Die andere Gruppe zeigte histologisch ein muskelinvasives Tumorstadium, d. In diese Gruppe wurden insgesamt 38 Patienten eingeordnet.

Jeweils 19 Patienten hatten einen pT2 Tumor bzw. Dies ist in Abbildung graphisch dargestellt. Abbildung - Geschlechterverteilung zwischen Tumor- und Kontrollgruppe Ergebnisse 3.

In den Klammern ist jeweils die Standardabweichung angegeben. Die restlichen 17 Patienten zeigten ein muskelinvasives Tumorwachstum.

Als graphische Darstellung dient Abbildung Siehe hierzu auch Abbildung Lymphogen bereits metastasierte Tumoren untereinander verglichen.

Siehe hierzu Abbildung Vergleiche hierzu auch Abbildung Insgesamt musste diese Diagnose bei neun Patienten gestellt werden. Sie errechnet sich aus der Anzahl der richtig- positiv getesteten Werte geteilt durch die Summe der richtig- positiven und der falschnegativen Werte.

Sie errechnet sich aus der Anzahl der richtig- negativen Ergebnisse geteilt durch die Summe der richtig- negativen und der falsch- positiven Werte.

Ergebnisse 57 3. Dies ist vereinbar mit der serologischen Untersuchung. Ergebnisse 61 3. Dies entspricht der Grenze des Referenzwertes.

Ergebnisse 64 3. Der Patient wies ein Tumorstadium pT3-G3 auf. Der Patient wies ebenfalls einen pT3-G3 Tumor auf. Immunhistochemisch kann sich ein ganz anderes Bild darstellen.

Allerdings kann zudem festgehalten werden, dass sich das immunhistochemische Ergebnis mit der Aussage deckt, dass CA ansteigt, je schlechter differenziert der Tumor ist.

Die Signifikanz ist mit einem p- Wert von 0, deutlich Abbildung Siehe dazu auch Tabelle sowie die Abbildungen Bis heute existieren lediglich einzelne Fallberichte zu diesem Thema.

Unter anderem haben Inai et al. Dabei haben wir neben der Serumbestimmung der beiden Tumormarker auch eine immunhistochemische Gewebeuntersuchung vorgenommen und die Ergebnisse untereinander korreliert.

Diskussion 74 Untersuchungen von Margel et al. Die Arbeitsgruppe um Chuang et al. CEA und CA haben sich in der Diagnostik gastrointestinaler Tumoren bereits im klinischen Alltag etabliert und werden hier auch mit Erfolg eingesetzt.

Dazu haben wir prospektiv die Serumkonzentrationen der Tumormarker mit dem histologischen Ergebnis korreliert.

Das prospektiv untersuchte Patientenkollektiv bestand insgesamt aus Personen, die mit dem Verdacht auf einen malignen Befund der Harnblase in der urologischen Klinik vorstellig wurden.

Die Ergebnisse wurden dann mit dem Tumorstadium korreliert. Patienten mit einem histologisch benignen Befund dienten als Kontrollgruppe.

Albers P: Harnableitung nach Zystektomie. In: J Urol ,

Susanne Schäfer

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